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Lifestyle, Identity

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string(114) ‘ local neighborhoods and is rooted in the experience, customs and beliefs from the everyday life of ordinary people\. ‘

BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: Ruben Q7 26/3/08 10: 47 Page up to 29 CHAPTER a couple of Culture and Identity BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: John Q7 26/3/08 12: 47 Site 30 Items

Key issues The meaning and importance of traditions Dominant traditions Subculture People culture High culture Mass, popular or low culture The changing distinction between high traditions and mass culture Global culture The idea of identity Different types of identity The socialization procedure Primary socialization Secondary socialization Socialization plus the social development of home and identification Theoretical methods to the part of socialization in the formation of traditions and identity Structural methods Social actions approaches A third way: structuration Social school and identity Social course Life possibilities Objective and subjective dimensions of class Cultural class nationalities Is social class of declining importance in forming identities? The continuing need for social course Gender and identity Sexual intercourse and male or female Gender and biology The signi? cance of sexuality as a way to obtain identity Sexuality stereotypes and hegemonic sexuality identities in Britain The social construction of hegemonic gender identities through socialization Changing male or female identities 23 31 31 32 thirty-two 32 thirty-three 35 thirty six Is there a crisis of masculinity? Is male or female still an essential source of personality? 4 seventy four 38 41 43 forty-four 44 46 46 forty seven 47 55 50 fifty-one 51 52 53 59 60 sixty one 61 sixty two 63 63 65 75 Sexuality and identity Male or female, sexuality and ‘normal’ sex Changing intimate identities Stigmatized or spoiled sexual details Gay and lesbian identities A note of extreme caution Ethnicity and identity What is meant simply by an ethnic identity? Diaspora and the positive effect Changing cultural identities: new ethnicities and hybrid cultural identities Ethnicity as level of resistance Ethnic identities in The united kingdom Nationality and identity What is nationality? Nationality as a supply of identity Precisely what is meant with a British personality? Globalization and declining nationwide identities An english identity turmoil?

Disability and identity The social construction of disability Disability, socialization and stereotyping Disability being a ‘master identity’ Disability – a stigmatized or rotten identity: an identity of exclusion Age and personality The interpersonal construction of age Age groups and identity Leisure, consumption and identity Postmodernism and personality The creation of personality in a media-saturated society How much free choice is there in choosing identities and lifestyle? Conclusion upon leisure, intake and identity Chapter synopsis Key terms Exam question seventy six 76 seventy six 77 77 78 79 79 80 81 82 82 87 87 88 88 91 92 93 93 94 95 ninety five 96 96 97 75 100 info 103 109 110 111 112 BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203).

qxp: John Q7 26/3/08 twelve: 47 Web page 31 CHAPTER 2 Culture and Identity K EY I SS U SERA?????? The meaning and importance of tradition The concept of identity The socialization process Socialization and the sociable construction of self and identity Assumptive approaches to the role of socialization inside the formation of culture and identity Interpersonal class and identity Sexuality and personality Sexuality and identity Racial and identity Nationality and identity Impairment and id Age and identity Leisure, consumption and identity The meaning and significance of culture The definition of ‘culture’ identifies the language, morals, values and norms, persuits, dress, diet, roles, know-how and skills, and all the other things that individuals learn that make up the ‘way of life’ of any society. Lifestyle is transferred from one generation to the next through the process of socialization. Although there are many aspects of everyday activities which are shared by many members of society, you will find di? erent conceptions and de? nitions of traditions within this standard approach. They are discussed under.

The dominant culture of your society refers to the main traditions in a culture, which is shared, or at least approved without competitors, by the most of people. Dominating culture The dominant tradition of a contemporary society refers to the key culture within a society, which is shared, at least accepted devoid of opposition, by the majority of 31 BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: Ruben Q7 26/3/08 10: forty seven Page thirty-two 32 | Culture and Identity people. For example , it would be argued the fact that main popular features of British culture include it being white, patriarchal and unequal, with those who are white colored and man having items they consider as advantageous rated since more important than patients who are female or from a minority cultural group.

Similarly, those who are wealthy and effective (who are mostly also white and male) are capable to have their sights of precisely what is valuable and worthwhile within a culture viewed as more important, and given bigger status, than patients of others. Subculture When communities are very small , such as tiny villages in traditional communities, then all people may talk about a common traditions or life style. However , because societies become larger and even more complicated, numerous smaller groups may arise within the bigger society, with some di? erences in their philosophy and life style. Each group having these types of di? erences is referred to as a subculture. People culture Folks culture may be the culture created by local communities which is rooted inside the experiences, persuits and beliefs of the everyday activities of the rest of us.

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It really is ‘authentic’ instead of manufactured, as it is actively made by the rest of us themselves. For example traditional persons music, persons songs, storytelling and persons dances which are passed on from one generation to another by socialization and often by simply direct encounter. Folk tradition is generally linked to pre-industrial or perhaps early professional societies, even though it nonetheless lingers on today amongst enthusiasts in the form of folk music and people clubs, as well as the Morris moving which features in many country events. A subculture can be described as smaller tradition held by a group of people inside the main lifestyle of a culture, in some ways different from the main culture but with aspects worth considering in common.

Types of subcultures consist of those of some young people, gypsies and vacationers, gay persons, different interpersonal classes and minority ethnic groups. Folk culture is definitely the culture developed by neighborhood communities and is rooted in the experiences, persuits and morals of the everyday activities of everyone else. High lifestyle High culture is generally known as being better than other forms of culture, and refers to aspects of culture that are seen as of lasting artsy or literary value, targeted at small , perceptive elites, mostly upper-class and middleclass groups, interested in fresh ideas, essential discussion and analysis and who have what some may possibly regard while ‘good taste’.

High lifestyle is seen as some thing set apart via everyday life, some thing special being treated with respect and reverence, regarding things of lasting value and a part of a historical past which is worth preserving. High culture goods are often present in special areas, like art galleries, museums, concert halls and theatres. Examples of high culture products consist of serious news programmes and documentaries, classical music that way of Mozart or Substantial culture identifies cultural items seen being of enduring artistic or perhaps literary benefit, which are particularly admired and approved of by elites and the top middle class. An elite is a small group keeping great electric power and privilege in contemporary society. BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: David Q7 26/3/08 10: forty seven Page 33

Culture and Identity Morris dancing is definitely an example of traditional folk lifestyle | 33 Mass culture, sometimes referred to as popular tradition or low culture, identifies cultural products produced on the market to the mass of the rest of us. These involve massproduced, standardised, short-lived products of no lasting benefit, which are found to demand little important thought, analysis or conversation. Beethoven, even now, opera, jazz, foreign language or specialist ‘art’? lms, and what is becoming established materials, such as the operate of Charles Dickens, Her Austen or Shakespeare, and visual artwork like that of Monet, Gauguin, Picasso or Van Gogh. Mass, well-known or low culture

Mass culture, at times called well-known culture or perhaps low tradition, is generally contrasted with large culture. This refers to each day culture – simple, BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: John Q7 26/3/08 12: 47 Web page 34 thirty four | Tradition and Identity Video games could be an example of well-known culture undemanding, easy-to-understand entertainment, rather than a thing ‘set apart’ and ‘special’. Mass traditions is seen by many as substandard to substantial culture. These kinds of aspects of tradition are a merchandise of industrial societies. They are directed at the mass of the rest of us, but lack roots in their daily activities as in folks culture, and are also manufactured by businesses for pro? t instead of created by community by itself re? ecting its own activities of lifestyle.

Popular lifestyle involves mass-produced, standardized and short-lived goods, sometimes of trivial articles and viewed by a few as of not any lasting ‘artistic’ value, largely concerned with earning money for significant corporations, especially the mass media. Well-liked culture may well include mass circulation mags, extensive protection of celebs, ‘red top’ tabloid magazines like the Sun or the Mirror, television cleansers and television shows, series and thrillers, rock and pop music, video games, blockbuster feature? lms for the mass market, and detective series bought pertaining to reading within the beach. These kinds of culture is essentially seen as passive and unchallenging, often quite mindless entertainment, aimed at the biggest number of people possible.

Some Marxists argue that mass culture preserves the ideological hegemony (or the prominence of a set of ideas) plus the power of the dominant interpersonal class in society. The reason is , the consumers of mass culture will be lulled in an uncritical, undemanding passivity, making them more unlikely to obstacle the dominant ideas, organizations and interests in society. BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: Steve Q7 26/3/08 10: 47 Page thirty five Culture and Identity | 35 The changing variation between high culture and mass culture Some right now argue that the distinction between high culture and mass culture is definitely weakening. Postmodernist writers, in particular, argue that mass markets and consumption today make the distinction between high and popular culture meaningless.

There has been a big expansion of the creative and cultural sectors, such as promoting, television,? lm, music, and book and magazine publishing. This means there is now a huge range of press and ethnical products available to all. Technology in commercial societies, such as mass connection technology such as the internet, music downloads, cable connection, satellite and digital tv,? lm and radio, stamping for the two mass development and personal utilization in the home, the global reach of modern mass media technology, the mass production of goods on a community scale and easier foreign transportation, make all forms of culture openly available to everybody.

Such technology enables original music and art and other cultural items to be used by the mass of people in their own homes without browsing specialized establishments like cinemas or galleries. High tradition is no longer simply the preserve of cultural elites. People surely have a larger diversity of cultural alternatives and products available to them than in the past in history, and may ‘pick and mix’ coming from either popular or large culture. Excessive culture galleries, like Tate Modern in London, are now attracting very large amounts of visitors, coming from very diverse backgrounds. Live opera has become available to the masses, through popular? gures like the OperaBabes, or concert events in the recreation area.

Strinati (1995) argues that elements of large culture have become a a part of popular culture, and portions of popular tradition have been integrated into excessive culture, and that there is consequently no longer any real variation between substantial and well-liked culture, and it is ever more di? cult for any one set of tips of what is worthwhile lifestyle to rule in society. For example , artist Andy Warhol painted thirty pictures of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa in di? erent colors, arguing that ‘thirty was better than one’, turning excessive culture fine art into well-known culture. Even though Warhol’s work has been marketed to millions through postcards and posters, at the same time it is extensively admired by supporters of high culture.

In 2007 there is some controversy in Britain when the Victoria and Albert Museum working in london, generally seen as an establishment of high traditions, held ‘Kylie: The Exhibition’ – a great exhibition of costumes, recording covers, components, photos and videos from your career from the then 38-year-old pop vocalist Kylie Minogue. This received widespread accusations from critics that excessive culture had been ‘dumbed down’. High lifestyle art varieties are themselves increasingly becoming turned into items for sale in the mass industry for ingestion by the mass of BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: John Q7 26/3/08 15: 47 Webpage 36 thirty eight | Lifestyle and Identity ordinary people, and there is no longer whatever special about art, since it is incorporated into daily life. Technology now means mass audiences can see and study substantial culture products, such as art by artists like Vehicle Gogh, within the internet or TV, and have their own framed print making ends meet their sitting-room wall.

Factory units may nonetheless only be in show in art galleries and museums, but copies can be obtained to everybody. High lifestyle art like the Mona Lisa or perhaps Van Gogh’s Sun? owers are now produced on everything by socks and t-shirts to chocolates and can lids, mugs, mouse mats, tablemats, jigsaws and cards. (Visit or for some bizarre images and uses of the Mona Lisa. ) Classical music is used like a marketing track by promoters, and literature is turned into TV series and major mass movies, such as Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice. Global culture Global culture identifies the way globalization has undermined national and native cultures, with cultural products and ways of your life in pada? erent countries of the world progressively more alike.

Similar cultural and consumer items are now offered across the world, inspired by mass media advertising and a shared mass culture spread through a media-generated tradition industry, and in addition they have become part of the ways of existence of many dalam? erent societies. For example , television set companies offer their programs and system formats like Big Brother and Who Wants to become a Millionaire? globally. Companies like McDonald’s, Coca�na Cola, Vodaphone, Starbucks, Nescafe, Sony and Nike are symbols that are recognized across the world, along with the consumer lifestyles and culture associated with them. Because Ritzer (2004) shows, making use of the example of the American food industry, companies and brands now operate on a global range.

For example , McDonald’s is a around the world business, with 26, five-hundred restaurants much more than 119 countries (in 2007), French fries Hut and Kentucky Toast Chicken operate in 90 countries, and Subway in 72 countries, with Starbucks growing for a heavy speed. It is currently possible to obtain an identical foodstuff practically around the globe, promoting a global culture and in addition weakening community cultures, because local meals outlets close in the face of competition and local weight loss plans change. Put together with global marketing of? lms, music, computer games, food and clothes, football and other consumer products, these have made cultures across the world increasingly similar, with people watching similar TV programs and? lms, eating precisely the same foods, wearing the same custom made clothes and labels, and sharing many aspects of their lifestyles and details.

Global lifestyle refers to the way cultures in several countries of the world have become more alike, showing increasingly identical consumer products and ways of existence. This has developed as the positive effect has undermined national and local cultures. Globalization is the growing interdependence of societies around the globe, with the pass on of the same culture, consumer items and monetary interests worldwide. BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: Steve Q7 26/3/08 10: forty seven Page 37 The Mona Lisa , Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, c. 1503–1507, oil on poplar, The Louvre, Paris … now has a spliff to unwind and a mobile to hold in touch Mona Stoner, c. 2006, submitted to internet: Art work is now available on cubes to learn with Origin: The Hireling shepherd is become a windows blind

About what ways do these pictures illustrate the erosion in the distinction among high traditions and well-liked culture? Try to think of different examples of this BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: John Q7 26/3/08 10: forty seven Page 32 38 | Culture and Identity Activity 1 Consider the pictures with this page, and explain about what ways they will illustrate global culture. Make an effort to think of different consumer items that are likewise global. 2 In what techniques do you think those products as well involves lifestyle choices? For instance , what’s the difference between using a coffee in Starbucks and in the local cafe (apart through the coffee itself)? Explain what lifestyle you believe is identi? ed with your selected products. Identify and explain, with examples, 3 differences between high culture, mass tradition and people culture. four Identify and explain three reasons why the distinction among high tradition and well-liked culture may be weakening. Globalization means that most of the same item brands are found in many countries of the world. The concept of personality Identity is approximately how people or teams see and de? eine themselves, and just how other persons or teams see and de? eine them. Personality is formed throughout the socialization procedure and the in? uence of social establishments like the friends and family, the education program and the advertising. The concept of personality is an important one, as it is simply through developing our own identities and earning about the identities of other individuals and organizations that we come to know what makes us a lot like some people and di? erent from other folks, and therefore form social contacts with them. How you discover yourself will certainly in? uence the friends you could have, who you can marry or live with, as well as the communities and groups where you associate and are supposed to be. If persons did not offer an identity, they might lack the means of figuring out with or perhaps relating to their very own peer group, to their others who live nearby, to the communities BROWNE CH 1–4 (M1203). qxp: David Q7 3/4/08 15: forty-nine Page 39 Culture and Identity | 39 in which they existed or to the folks they found in their everyday lives. Identification therefore ‘? ts’ individuals into the society in which that they live.

The identity of individuals and groupings involves the two elements of personal choice plus the responses and attitudes more. Individuals are not free to take up any identity they like, and elements like their social category, their ethnic group and their sex will likely in? uence how other folks see them. The identity that an person wants to insist and that they can may wish others to see these people having may not be the one that other folks accept or recognize. A great Asian girl, for example , may well not wish to be identi? ed primarily as a great Asian or maybe a woman, but since a elderly manager or perhaps entertainer. However , if other folks still ‘Look, don’t determine me by size and shape of my body, my own social course, y job, my gender, my racial, my sexuality, my nationality, my grow older, my religion, my education, my friends, my lifestyle, the amount of money I earn, the clothing I put on, the catalogs I go through, where My spouse and i go shopping, the way in which I decorate my house, the tv programmes and films I view, my amusement and sporting activities, the car I actually drive, the background music I pay attention to, the refreshments I like, the foodstuff I eat, the clubs I head to, where I go on getaway, the way My spouse and i speak or my highlight, the things I say, the things I do, or the things i believe in. I am just just me. OK? ‘ continue to discover her mostly in terms of her ethnic and gender attributes, she may possibly? nd this di? conspiracy to assert her chosen identification. Similarly, the pensioner who also sees him or very little as ‘young at heart’ may nevertheless be regarded as a classic person simply by others.

Individuals have multiple identities, asserting di? erent identities in di? erent circumstances. An individual may, for example , de? nenni herself generally as a Muslim in her family or perhaps community, like a manager in her operate, as a saphic girls in her sexual your life, or as a designer-drug-user in her peer group. While the example of the Muslim, saphic girls, drug-taking administrator might seem a somewhat not likely mix of identities, it does claim that it is possible for people to assert dalam? erent details or impacts of themselves in di? erent cultural situations. Details may also transform over time. For example , as persons grow older they may begin to see themselves while di? erent from whenever they were more youthful

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