western ghats dissertation

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The Western Ghats or the Sahyādri constitute a mountain range along the traditional western side of India. This can be a UNESCO World Heritage Web page and is one of many eight best hotspots of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes known as the Great Escarpment of India. The range operates north to south over the western advantage of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau coming from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, to the south of the Likti river, and runs about 1, six hundred km (990 mi) throughout the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala closing at Kanyakumari, at the the southern part of tip of India.

These hills cover one hundred sixty, 000 km2 (62, 1000 sq mi) and make up the catchment region for sophisticated riverine drainage systems that drain practically 40% of India. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan Plateau. The typical elevation is approximately 1, 200 m (3, 900 ft). The area is one of the world’s five “Hottest biodiversity hotspots” and has more than 5000 types of flowering crops, 139 mammal species, 508 bird types and 179 amphibian kinds; it is likely that various undiscovered types live in the Western Ghats.

In least 325 globally endangered species result from the European Ghats.


The American Ghats aren’t true mountains, but are the faulted edge of the Deccan Plateau. They are believed to have been completely formed through the break-up from the super country of Gondwana some 150 million yrs ago. Geophysicists Barron and Harrison from the College or university of Ohio advocate the idea that the western coast of India came into being somewhere around 95 to eighty mya following it pennyless away from Madagascar. After the break-up, the traditional western coast of India may have appeared because an sudden cliff a lot of 1, 000 m (3, 300 ft) in height.[6] Basalt is a predominant ordinary found in the hills reaching a depth of 3 km (2 mi). Additional rock types found happen to be charnockites, stone gneiss, khondalites, leptynites, metamorphic gneisses with detached incidences of transparent limestone, iron ore, dolerites and anorthosites. Residual laterite and bauxite ores are usually found in the southern hillsides.


Some of Anamudi, the highest maximum of european Ghats two, 695 metre distances (8, 842 ft) from Eravikulam National Recreation area, Kerala. Mountain ranges

The Western Ghats extend from your Satpura Selection in the north, go southern past Maharashtra, Goa, through Karnataka and intoKerala and Tamil Nadu. Major spaces in the selection are the Goa Gap, between the Maharashtra and Karnataka parts, and thePalghat Gap within the Tamil Nadu and Kerala border between your Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills.


The major hillside range starting from the north is the Sahyadhri (the good-hearted mountains) range. This range is home to a large number of hill channels like Matheran, Lonavala-Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Panchgani, Amboli Ghat, Kudremukh and Kodagu. The range is referred to as Sahyadri in northern Maharashtra, Karnataka and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala.


The Nilgiri Hills, also known as the Nilagiri malai, are in northwestern Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Hills are home to the slope station Ooty. The Bili giri rangana Betta southeast of Mysore in Karnataka, meet the Shevaroys (Servarayan range) and Tirumala range further east, connecting the Western Ghats towards the Eastern Ghats. In the South, the range is definitely or Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu.

Anaimalai Hills

Southern region of the Palghat Gap would be the Anaimalai Hills, in american Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Smaller varies are further south, which includes theCardamom Hillsides. In the southern part of the range is Anamudi peak a couple of, 695 metre distances (8, 842 ft) in Kerala the best peak in Western Ghats. Chembra Peak 2, 90 metres (6, 890 ft), Banasura Maximum 2, 073 metres (6, 801 ft), Vellarimala a couple of, 200 metre distances (7, 218 ft) and Agasthya equivocada 1, 868 metres (6, 129 ft) are also in Kerala. Doddabetta in the Nilgiri Hills is definitely 2, 637 metres (8, 652 ft). Mullayanagiri may be the highest top in Karnataka 1, 950 metres (6, 398 ft). The American Ghats in Kerala and Tamil Nadu is home to many tea and coffee plantations.

The upper portion of the narrow coastal plain between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea is referred to as the Konkan Coast or perhaps Konkan, the central part is called Kanara and the the southern part of portion is referred to as Malabar region or the Malabar Coast. The foothill region east from the Ghats in Maharashtra is referred to as Desh, even though the eastern foothills of the central Karnataka state is known as Malenadu.[7] The biggest city inside the mountains may be the city of Pune (Poona), in the Desh area on the eastern edge from the range.

The Biligirirangan Hillsides lies on the confluence with the Western and Eastern Ghats. The mountains intercept the rain-bearing westerly monsoon winds, and are consequently a place of high rainfall, particularly issues western aspect. The dense forests likewise contribute to the anticipation of the area by behaving as a base for moisture build-up or condensation of damp rising orographic winds through the sea, and releasing much of the moisture back to the air through transpiration, letting it later reduce and show up again since rain.

wetlands and reservoirs

The Western Ghats have got several manmade lakes and reservoirs. The well known wetlands are the Ooty (2500 meters altitude, 34. 0 ha) in Nilgiris, and the Kodaikanal (2285 m, 26 ha) and the Berijam in the Palani Hills. The Pookode lake of Wayanad in Kerala at Lakkadi is a gorgeous scenic one particular with boating and yard arrangements. The majority of the bigger wetlands are located in the state of Tamil Nadu. Two smaller wetlands, the Devikulam (6. 0 ha) as well as the Letchmi Elefant (2. 0 ha) are in the Munnarrange. The majority of fields draining the Western Ghats and joining the Waterways Krishna and Kaveri bring water during monsoon a few months only and get dammed to get hydroelectric and irrigation functions.

The major reservoirs are: Lonavala and Walwahn in Maharashtra; V. Sixth is v. Sagar, E. R. Sagar and Tungabhadra in the Malenadu area of Karnataka; Mettur Atteinte, Upper Bhavani, Mukurthi, Parson’s Valley, Porthumund, Avalanche, Emerald, Pykara, Sandynulla, Karaiyar, Servalar, Kodaiyar, Manimuthar Dam and Glenmorgan in Tamil Nadu; and Kundallay and Maddupatty in the Substantial Range of Kerala. Of these the Lonavla, Walwahn, Upper Bhavani, Mukurthi, Parson’s Valley, Porthumund, Avalanche, Emerald green, Pykara, Sandynulla, Glenmorgan, Kundally and Madupatty are important because of their commercial and sport the fishing industry for trout, mahseer and common carp.[13]


The Western Ghats form among the four watersheds of India, feeding the perennial estuaries and rivers of India. Important streams include the Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. These kinds of rivers stream to the east and drain out into the Bay of Bengal. The western flowing waterways, that drain into the Arabian Sea, happen to be fast-moving, owing to the short distance went and higher gradient. Important rivers range from the Mandovi and Zuari. Many of these rivers give food to the backwaters of Kerala and Maharashtra. Rivers that flow eastwards of the Ghats drain in to the Bay of Bengal. These are comparatively reduced moving and in the end merge in larger estuaries and rivers such as the Kaveri and Krishna. The larger tributaries include the Tunga River, Bhadra river, Bhima River, Malaprabha River, Ghataprabha River, Hemavathi river, Kabini River. In addition there are several smaller sized rivers such as theChittar River, Manimuthar River, Kallayi River, Kundali Riv, Pachaiyar Riv, Pennar Lake, Periyar and the Kallayi River.

Fast running rivers and steep mountains have presented sites for several large hydro-electric projects. You will discover about 55 major public works along the length of the Western Ghats with the first project in 1900 close to Khopoli in Maharashtra.[14] Most notable of these projects are the Koyna Hydroelectric Task in Maharashtra, the Parambikulam Dam in Kerala, and theLinganmakki Atteinte in Karnataka.[7] The reservoir behind the Koyna Dam, the Shivajisagar Lake, provides a length of 55 km(31 mi) and depth of eighty m (262 ft).[15] It’s the largest hydroelectric project in Maharashtra, making 1, 920 MW of electrical power.[16] One more major Hydro Electric task is Idukki dam in Kerala. This dam is among the biggest in Asia and generates around 70% of power for Kerala state.

Mullai Periyar dam close to Thekkady is one of the oldest in the world and a major tourist attractions in Kerala. Normal water from this atteinte is attracted to the huge coastal simple of Tamil Nadu, creating a delta and so that it is rich in plants. During the monsoon season, quite a few streams provided by constant rain drain off the huge batch sides bringing about numerous and frequently spectacular waterfalls. Among the most well-known is the Walk Falls, Kunchikal Falls, Sivasamudram Falls, andUnchalli Falls. The Jog Declines is the maximum natural dive waterfall in South Asia and is detailed among the one thousand one natural amazing things of the world.[17]

Talakaveri wildlife refuge is a essential watershed as well as the source of the river Kaveri. This region has dense evergreen and semi-evergreen vegetation, with shola-grassland in aspects of higher height. The sharp terrain from the area offers resulted in scenic waterfalls along its a large number of mountain fields. Sharavathi and Someshvara Wildlife sanctuaries in Shimoga section are the method to obtain the Tungabhadra River system. The Netravathi water has also their origin in western ghats of India flowing westwards to join Arabian sea by Mangalore.

Local climate

Climate in the Western Ghats varies with altitudinal succession and range from the collar. The local climate is damp and tropical in the reduced reaches reinforced by the proximity to the marine. Elevations of 1, 500 meters (4, 921 ft) and above in the north and 2, 500 m (6, 562 ft) and over in the southern region have a much more temperate weather. Average gross annual temperature here are around 12-15 °C (60 °F). In a few parts frost is common, and temperatures feel the very cold point throughout the winter months. Suggest temperature range from 20 °C (68 °F) in the southern to twenty-four °C (75 °F) inside the north. It has also been discovered that the coldest periods inside the south western ghats match with the wettest.[18] During the monsoon season among June and September, the unbroken Western Ghats chain acts as a obstacle to the water laden clouds.

The weighty, eastward-moving rain-bearing clouds have to rise and in the process put in most of all their rain for the windward aspect. Rainfall in this region averages several, 000–4, 000 mm (120–160 in) with localised extreme conditions touching being unfaithful, 000 millimeter (350 in). The eastern region in the Western Ghats which lie in the rainwater shadow, obtain far less rain fall averaging about 1, 000 mm (40 in) bringing the average rain fall figure to 2, five-hundred mm (150 in). Info from rain fall figures uncover that there is no relationship between your total volume of rain received and the spread with the area. A lot of areas towards the north in Maharashtra although receiving heavy rainfall will be followed by extended dry spells, while parts closer to the equator obtaining less total annual rainfall, have got rain spells lasting nearly the entire year.[18]


The European Ghats happen to be home to four tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregions – the North Traditional western Ghats damp deciduous forests, North Western Ghats montane rain forests, South Western Ghats moist perishable forests, and South American Ghats montane rain forests. The northern area of the range is generally drier compared to the southern portion, and at reduced elevations makes up the North Western Ghats moist perishable forests ecoregion, with generally deciduous forests made up mainly of teak.

Above 1, 000 yards elevation will be the cooler and wetter North Western Ghats montane virgin forest, whose timeless forests will be characterised by trees of family Lauraceae. The classic Wayanad woodlands of Kerala mark the transition region between the upper and the southern part of ecologic parts of the Traditional western Ghats. The southern ecologic regions are usually wetter and more species-rich. At lower elevations are the Southern Western Ghats moist perishable forests, with Cullenia the characteristic woods genus, combined with teak, dipterocarps, and other woods.

The damp forests move to the drier South Deccan Plateau dried deciduous woodlands, which rest in its rainwater shadow towards the east. Previously mentioned 1, 000 meters will be the South American Ghats montane rain forests, also cooler and wetter than the surrounding lowland forests, and dominated simply by evergreen woods, although some montane grasslands and stunted forests can be found at the highest elevations. The South European Ghats montane rain forests are definitely the most species-rich ecologic region in peninsular India; 80 percent from the flowering flower species of the complete Western Ghats range are simply in this ecologic region.

Biome protection

In the past the Western Ghats had been well-covered in dense jungles that provided wild foods and natural habitats for nativetribal people. Its inaccessibility made it difficult for people from your plains to cultivate the land and build settlements. Following your arrival from the British in the area, large swathes of territory were cleared to get agricultural farms and timber. The forest in the European Ghats has become severely fragmented due to human being activities, especially clear felling for tea, coffee, and teak farms during 1860 to 1950. Species which can be rare, native to the island and an environment specialists are more adversely afflicted and are likely to be lost faster than any other species. Sophisticated and varieties rich habitats like the tropical rainforest are much more adversely affected than any other habitats. [19] The area is definitely ecologically very sensitive to expansion and was declared an ecological hotspot in 1988 through the efforts of ecologist Norman Myers. Though this area addresses barely five percent of India’s area, 27% of all species of higher plants in India (4, 000 of 15, 000 species) are normally found here.

Nearly 1, 800 of these will be endemic for the region. The number is home to for least 84 amphibian types, 16 fowl species, eight mammals, and 1, six hundred flowering plants which are not identified elsewhere in the world. The Government of India established many protected areas including 2 biosphere reserves, 13 National theme parks to restrict man access, several wildlife sanctuaries to protect specific endangered types and many Hold Forests, which can be all been able by the forest departments of their respective condition to preserve a number of the ecoregions continue to undeveloped. Various National Recreational areas were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve comprising 5500 km² from the evergreen woodlands of Nagarahole, deciduous woodlands of Bandipur National Park and Nugu in Karnataka and plus regions ofWayanad, Mudumalai Nationwide Park and Mukurthi Nationwide Park in the us of Kerala and Tamil Nadu forms the largest contiguous protected area in the American Ghats.[20]

The Western Ghats is home to quite a few serene hillside stations likeMunnar, Ponmudi and Waynad. The Silent Pit National Area in Kerala is among the previous tracts of virgin exotic evergreen forest in India.[21] Regarding the American Ghats, in November 2009, Minister of Environment and Forests, Jairam Ramesh stated, “The Traditional western Ghats must be made a great “ecologically very sensitive zone”. It is as important as the ecological system of the Himalayas for safeguard of the environment and environment of the region. The Central government is not going to give sanction for exploration and hydroelectric projects suggested by the State Governments of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa that will eliminate the Traditional western Ghats eco-system. ”[22] Within a letter went out with 20 06 2009, Mister. Ramesh stated

“The (proposed) 200-MW Gundia hydel project of Karnataka Power Organization in Hassan district could drown almost 1, 900 acres (7. 7 km2) of solid forest in the already decreasing in numbers Western Ghats along with all its fauna. This is a thing that both Karnataka and each of our country can ill-afford. ” “Power era should not happen at the expense of ecological reliability. ” The Expert Evaluation Committee designated by Union Government also said that the project should not be taken up.[23]

That kicks off in august, 2011, the Western Ghats Ecology Professional Panel (WGEEP) designated the complete Western Ghats as an Ecologically Very sensitive Area (ESA) and, given three degrees of Ecological Level of sensitivity to the different areas.[24]

•Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve

•Shendurney Wildlife Refuge

•Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary

•Peppara Wildlife Refuge

•Kulathupuzha Range

•Palode Range

•Periyar Tiger Book

•Ranni Forest Department

•Konni Forest Split

•Achankovil Forest Division

•Srivilliputtur Wildlife Haven

•Tirunelveli (North) Forest Division (part)

•Eravikulam National Recreation area (and recommended extension)

•Grass Hills National Park

•Karian Shola Countrywide Park

•Karian Shola (part of Parambikulam Creatures Sanctuary)

•Mankulam Selection

•Chinnar Wildlife Haven

•Mannavan Shola

•Silent Area National Playground

•New Amarambalam Reserved Forest

•Mukurthi National Park

•Kalikavu Selection

•Attapadi Reserved Forest

•Pushpagiri Wildlife Haven

•Brahmagiri Wildlife Refuge

•Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary

•Padinalknad Reserved Forest

•Kerti Reserved Forest

•Aralam Wildlife Haven

•Kudremukh National Park

•Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary

•Someshwara Reserved Forest

•Agumbe Reserved Forest

•Balahalli Reserved Forest

•File: Kas Plateau

•Koyna Wildlife Haven

•Chandoli National Park

•Radhanagari Wildlife Haven


The Western Ghats are home to 1000s of animal types including at least 325 globally vulnerable species. A large number of areendemic varieties, especially in the spermatophyte and reptilian classes. Thirty two threatened types of mammals are in the Traditional western Ghats. From the 16 endemic mammals, 13 are insecure [28] •Mammals- There are in least 139 mammal kinds. A seriously endangered mammal of the Traditional western Ghats is the nocturnal Malabar large-spotted civet. The arboreal Lion-tailed macaque is decreasing in numbers. Only 2300 of this kinds are outstanding.[29] The largest population of Big cat tailed macacque is in Muted Valley National Park. Kudremukh National Playground also protects a viable populace.[30] These slope ranges serve as important animals corridors, allowing for seasonal migration of endangered Asian elephants. The Nilgiri Bio-sphere houses the largest populace of Oriental Elephants and forms an essential Project Elephant andProject Tiger reserve.

Brahmagiri and Pushpagiri wildlife sanctuaries are important elephant habitats. Karnataka’s Ghat areas hold over six 1, 000 elephants (as of 2004) and ten percent of India’s critically decreasing in numbers tiger inhabitants.[31] The largest population of India’s tigers outside of the Sundarbans is in the unbroken jungles bordering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The largest quantities and herds ofvulnerable gaur are found right here with the Bandipur National Area and Nagarhole together possessing over five thousand Gaur.[32] To the west the forests of Kodagu maintain sizeable populations of the decreasing in numbers Nilgiri langur. Bhadra Creatures Sanctuary and project tiger reserve in Chikmagalur provides large foule of Of india muntjac. A large number of Asian hippo, gaur, sambar, vulnerable sloth bears, leopard, tiger and wild boars dwell in the forests of Karnataka.

Bannerghatta National Area and Annekal reserve forest is an important elephant corridor connecting the forests of Tamil Nadu with those of Karnataka. Dandeli and Anshi national parks in Uttara Kannada district will be home to the black panther and regular variety of leopards and significant populations of big Indian Hornbill. Bhimgad in Belgaumdistrict can be described as proposed creatures sanctuary and is home towards the endemic vitally endangered Wroughton’s freetailed bat. the Krishnapur caves close by will be one of just three locations in the country where the little-known Theobald’s tomb baseball bat is found. Significant Lesser Phony Vampire bats are found in the Talevadi caves.[33] •Reptiles- The snake family members Uropeltidae in the reptile school is almost totally restricted to this region.

•Amphibians- The amphibians of the American Ghats will be diverse and unique, with more than 80% with the 179 amphibian species being endemic towards the region. Most of the endemic types have their syndication in the rainforests of these mountains.[34] The decreasing in numbers Purple frog was present in 2003 to be a living precious. This types of frog is most closely relevant to species present in the Seychelles. Four fresh species of Anurans belonging to the genus Rhacophorus, Polypedates, Philautus and Bufo have been completely described in the Western Ghats.[35] •Fish – 102 types of fish are listed intended for the European Ghats water bodies.[13] Traditional western Ghats streams are residence to several brilliantly coloured attractive fishes like Red line torpedo barb, Red-tailed barb,[36] Osteobrama bakeri, Günther’s catfish and freshwater puffer fish Tetraodon travancoricus, Carinotetraodon imitator and sea forms likeChelonodon patoca (Buchanan-Hamilton, 1822);[37] mahseers such as Malabar mahseer.[38]

•Birds- There are for least 508 bird species. Most of Karnataka’s five hundred types of birds[39] happen to be from the Traditional western Ghats area.[40] Bhadra Creatures Sanctuary is found at the northern end in the Malabar amounts and the the southern area of tip from the Sahyadri ranges and parrot species via both runs can be seen below. There are for least of sixteen species of birds endemic for the western Ghats including the endangered Rufous-breasted Laughingthrush, the prone Nilgiri Wood-pigeon, White-bellied Shortwing and Broad-tailed Grassbird, the near threatened, Grey-breasted Laughingthrush, Black-and-rufous Flycatcher, Nilgiri Flycatcher, and Nilgiri Pipit and the least concernMalabar Parakeet, Malabar Grey Hornbill, White-bellied Treepie, Grey-headed Bulbul, Rufous Babbler, Wynaad Laughingthrush, White-bellied Blue-flycatchers and the Crimson-backed Sunbird.

Insects- There are around 6, 000 insect varieties from Kerala alone.[42] Of 334 butterflies species noted from the American Ghats, 316 species have been completely reported from your Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.[43] •Molluscs- Seasonal rain fall patterns of the Western Ghats necessitate a period of dormancy for its property snails, resulting in their excessive abundance and diversity including by least 258 species of gastropods from 57 genera and 24 families.[44]


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