cryptosporidium case study case study

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Creature Therapy, Malnutrition, Cholera, Morphine

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Cryptosporidium Example

Cryptosporidium is definitely reported as being a “coccidian protozoan parasite” and one that has brought a great deal of attention over the past 2 decades as a “clinically important man pathogen. ” (Hannahs, nd, p. 1) The breakthrough of Cryptosporidium is reported as connected with E. Electronic. Tyzzer whom described a “cell-associated organism in the digestive, gastrointestinal mucosa of mice” in 1907 because reported in the work of Keusch ain al. (1995). (Hannahs, nd, p. 1) Cryptosporidium was believed for several decades to be a “rare, opportunistic animal virus. ” (Hannahs, nd, g. 1)

The first case of individual cryptosporidiosis took place in a three-year-old girl in rural Tn in 1976 suffering from serious gastroenteritis for two weeks and reported inside the work of Flanigan and Soave (1993). Cryptosporidium parvum was discovered through use of an electronic microscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa. Cryptosporidium parvus was linked to AIDS cases in the 1980s and this resulted in renewed attention of this contamination as a “ubiquitous human pathogen. ” (Hannahs, nd, p. 1)

Cryptosporidium oocysts can be an infection that is water-borne and is also often contracted in moving water, which has positioned further emphasis on this particular illness. There is not very much known about the pathogenesis of the vermine and to particular date there is not a secure or successful treatment founded for combating cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium is in contrast to other intestinal tract pathogens in that it can contaminate several different hosts and has the capacity to survive many environments for long periods of time reported to be due to its “hardy cyst” (Keusch, ain al., 95 in: Hannahs, nd, s. 1) This parasite inhabits all areas and locales as well. (Hannahs, nd, l. 1) The next illustration reveals a duodenal biopsy sample taken from a great AIDS affected person who has cryptosporidiosis.

Figure one particular

Duodenal Biopsy Sample Via AIDS Patient with Cryptosporidiosis

Source: Hannahs (nd)

The arrow shows the unwanted organisms in the microvillus border.

I actually. Life Circuit of Cryptosporidium

The taxonomical classification of Cryptosporidium can be as a Sporozoa because its oocyst is known to release 4 sporozoites, which are its motile infectious brokers upon excystation. The life pattern of Cryptosporidium is sophisticated in characteristics as there are the two sexual and asexual periods and six developmental periods of a unique nature will be noted in the work of Keusch ainsi que al. (1995) as follows:

(1) Stage a single: excystation of the orally ingested oocyst in the small bowel with relieve of the 4 sporozoites;

(2) Stage two: invasion of intestinal epithelial cells via the differentiated apical end in the sporozoite in a vacuole produced of both equally host and parasite membranes and the avertissement of the asexuado intracellular copie stage;

(3) Stage three – difference of microgametes and macrogametes;

(4) Stage Four – fertilization that initiates sexual replication;

(5) Stage Five – progress oocysts;

(6) Stage Half a dozen – Development of new, infectious sporozoites inside the oocyst, which can be then excreted in the stool. (Hannahs, nd, p. 1)

This routine is such that starts all over if the oocysts are ingested by a new number. The following physique illustrates the Cryptosporidium your life cycle as noted in Hayworth (1992).

Figure 2

Cryptosporidium Existence Cycle

Source: Hannahs (nd)

II. Clinical manifestations

There is a broad variety of variation inside the symptoms of cryptosporidiosis in people who are immunocompetent and immunocompromised for the reason that cryptosporidiosis in the immunocompetent individuals involves “an acute, yet self-limiting diarrheal illness long-term one to two weeks in during with symptoms including regular and watering diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abs cramps, and a low-grade fever. For the individual that is immunocompromised the sickness is much more severe and involves cholera type diarrhea, severe cramps in the abdominal location, malaise, a low-grade fever accompanied by weight-loss and anorexia. This infection is also indicated as accountable for thickening of the gallbladder wall structure and known to infection the individual’s breathing. (Hannahs, nd, paraphrased)

III. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium

The Cryptosporidiosis disease has been reported in six continents and known to disease individuals via three times of age to 95 years of age with transmission generally becoming through feces or dental transmission and a lot of times through livestock mammal feces damaging water sources. The most very likely individuals to always be infected at this time parasitic infection are newborns and youngsters who go to daycare centers, individuals with unfiltered and untreated drinking water, people involved in farming operations and specifically those delivering lambs, calves and who pass on muck, those who practice sexual intercourse that bring the person talking to the fecal material of one more individual attacked with Cryptosporidium, patients within a healthcare placing with other attacked patients and healthcare workers in this establishing, veterinarians who have attend farm animals, travelers to areas where normal water is untreated, individuals residing in urban areas which might be densely populated, and in unusual cases, owners of house animals which have become infected with Cryptosporidium. (Hannahs, nd, paraphrased)

IV. Indication of Cryptosporidial Infection

The Cryptosporidial illness is transmitted from food and water that has been infected by fecal material and also via contact with pets or animals or additional individuals who have this infection. Only a small amount of toxic contamination is needed intended for transmission of this infection. Avoiding contracting this kind of infection the requirement of the subsequent as stated by Mayo Center:

(1) Rinse hands completely with water and soap (and regulate children’s handwashing) after using the toilet or changing diapers, after managing animals or cleaning up fecal material, after doing work in soil or touching virtually any objects including shoes which may have been polluted with waste materials, and before preparing, offering, or consuming food;

(2) Prevent drinking without treatment water by lakes, streams, and other surface area water bodies;

(3) Because of possible contaminants with manure, peel or rinse fruits or vegetables to be ingested raw;

(4) Take extra care in selecting drink and food when traveling to places with poor sterilization;

(5) Adhere to any normal water advisory granted by local health departments, state regulators, or the National Centers to get Disease Control and Prevention;

(6) To take care of contaminated water before drinking it, carry it to this a moving boil no less than one minute to kill oocysts or remove them with a filtering with a total pore size of one micron or smaller. (Mayo Clinic, 2012, g. 1)

Sixth is v. Pathogenesis

4 sporozoites happen to be released upon oocyst excystation and these are reported to “adhere their apical ends to the area of the intestinal mucosa. ” (Hannahs, nd, p. 1) The following shows a phase contrast picture of the sporozoite release constitute the Cryptosporidium oocyst which has been tailored from the operate of Flanigan and Delizioso (1993) and Hannahs (nd).

Figure several

The agent of accessory to the digestive tract surface have been identified as A sporozoite-specific lectin adherence element. Following connection, Hannahs (nd) reports it has been “hypothesized that the epithelial mucosa cellular material release cytokines that trigger resident phagocytes” as reported in the function of Goodgame (1996). It is reported that thee stimulated cells inch release soluble factors that increase intestinal tract secretion of water and chloride and in addition inhibit absorption. These sencillo factors include histamine, serotonin, adenosine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating component, and they do something about various substrates, including enteric nerves and the epithelial cells themselves” again because cited inside the work of Goodgame (1996) and reported in the function of Hannahs (nd). In this way that there is damage to epithelial cellular material in one of two ways as follows:

(1) Cell death is actually a direct response to parasite breach, multiplication, and extrusion or (2) Cell damage could occur through T cell-mediated inflammation, producing villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. (Hannahs, nd, l. 1)

Both method of damage is due to “distortion of villus architecture and is accompanied by nutritional malabsorption and diarrhea” according to Goodgame (1996). (Hannahs, nd, s. 1) Evidence derived from experiments supports this kind of pathogenic hypothesis and especially as reported in a this halloween model system in which ” decreased intestinal tract sodium compression has been linked to “both decreased villus surface area and inhibited by prostaglandin E2 manufactured by inflammatory cells” as through Goodgame (1996) and reported in the operate of Hannahs (nd, s. 1)

Sixth is v. Detection and Diagnosis

Recognition of C. parvum was accomplished through biopsy of intestinal tissue as reported in the function of Keusch et al. (1995). This method of assessment however makes false advantages since the intestinal tract parasitic contamination is known to end up being somewhat patchy as observed by Flanigan and Soave (1993). Another method applied was staining to find the oocysts directly from the individual’s samples of stool. Yet , the determined best method for use is that of the “modified acid-fast stain” since it is most reliable in detection of cryptosporidial oocysts. (Hannahs, nd, p. 1) Hannahs (nd) states that anti – cryptosporidial IgM, IgG, and IgA could be “immunologicallydetected by the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) or by the antibody immunofluorescence assay (IFA), but neither of these assays can provide an immediate diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.

Recently, fresh genetic strategies of detecting C. parvum have been completely developed, using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) or different DNA-based recognition methods. inches (p. 1)

VI. Treatment

While there is not a effective treatment for patients with cryptosporidiosis, antiparasitic therapy is reported to become combined with systematic treatment which include nutritional

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