Learning Organization Essay

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY happen to be proliferating while corporations strive to better themselves and gain an edge. Regrettably, however , failed programs considerably outnumber successes, and improvement rates remain low. That’s because most companies have did not grasp a simple truth. Prior to people and companies can improve, they will first must learn.

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And to do this, they have to look further than rhetoric and high viewpoint and concentrate on the fundamentals. Three critical issues must be dealt with before an organization can really become a learning organization, creates Harvard Business School professor David Garvin. First is the question of meaning: a well-grounded, easy-to-apply definition of a learning corporation. Second comes management: clearer operational guidelines for practice.

Finally, better tools intended for measurement can easily assess an organization’s charge and degree of learning. Applying these “three Ms” as being a framework, Garvin defines learning organizations since skilled in five primary activities: methodical problem solving, experimentation with fresh approaches, listening to advice from past knowledge, learning from the best practices more, and copying knowledge quickly and proficiently throughout the business. And since you can’t deal with something if you can’t measure it, a whole learning audit is a must.

Which includes measuring cognitive and behavioral changes as well as tangible advancements in outcomes. No learning organization is made overnight. Success comes from thoroughly cultivated behaviour, commitments, and management operations that accrue slowly and steadily. The first step is to create an environment conducive to learning. Analog Products, Chaparral Steel, Xerox, GENERAL ELECTRIC, and other companies provide educated examples.

CONSTANT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT APPLICATIONS are popping up all over as organizations strive to better themselves and gain an edge. The topic list is lengthy and diverse, and sometimes it appears as though a course a month is necessary just to continue. Unfortunately, failed programs much outnumber successes, and improvement rates continue to be distressingly low. Why?

Because most companies have failed to grasp a basic real truth. Continuous improvement requires a determination to learning. How, after all, can a business improve devoid of first learning something new? Solving a problem, introducing a product, and reengineering a procedure all require seeing the earth in a new light and acting consequently.

In the a shortage of learning, companies-and individuals -simply repeat outdated practices. Transform remains aesthetic, and advancements are possibly fortuitous or short-lived. A couple of farsighted professionals – Ray Stata of Analog Products, Gordon Forward of Chaparral Metallic, Paul Allaire of Xerox-have recognized the web link between learning and constant improvement and possess begun to refocus their very own companies around it.

Students too have got jumped within the bandwagon, beating the drum for “learning organizations” and “knowledge-creating companies. ” In rapidly changing businesses like semiconductors and consumer electronics, these types of ideas are quickly taking maintain. Yet in spite of the encouraging symptoms, the topic mostly remains murky, confused, and difficult to permeate. Meaning, Administration, and Measurement Scholars will be partly to blame. Their discussions of learning organizations have got often recently been reverential and utopian, stuffed with near mystical terminology. Paradise, they would perhaps you have believe, is just around the corner.

Philip Senge, who also popularized learning organizations in his book The Fifth Self-discipline, described all of them as locations “where people continually broaden their ability to create the results that they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking will be nurtured, exactly where collective hope is set totally free, and exactly where people are regularly learning how to master together. “‘ To achieve these ends, Senge suggested the use of five “component technologies”: devices thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, and team learning. In a similar spirit, Ikujiro Nonaka characterized knowledge-creating corporations as places where “inventing new knowledge can be not a specific activity … it is a method of behaving, without a doubt, a way of becoming, in which everybody is a knowledge worker. “‘ Nonaka suggested that companies make use of metaphors and organizational redundancy to focus thinking, encourage discussion, and produce tacit, intuitively understood suggestions explicit.

Appear idyllic? Definitely. Desirable? Unquestionably. But can it provide a framework for action? Barely. The recommendations are far too abstract, and too many queries remain unanswered. How, for example , will managers know the moment their corporations have become learning organizations? What concrete changes in behavior are required? What plans and applications must be set up? How do you get from here to there? Many discussions of learning businesses finesse these issues. Their target is large philosophy and grand topics, sweeping metaphors rather than the gritty details of practice. Three important issues are left uncertain; yet they are all essential for powerful implementation. Initially is the question of which means.

We need a plausible, well-grounded definition of learning organizations; it must be actionable and simple to apply. Second is the issue of administration. We need sharper guidelines intended for practice, filled with operational suggestions rather than substantial aspirations. And third is the question of measurement.

We need better tools for determining an organization’s rate and level of understanding how to ensure that benefits have actually been made. When these “three Ms” happen to be addressed, managers will have a firmer base for releasing learning businesses. Without this kind of groundwork, improvement is less likely, and for the best of reasons. For finding out how to become a significant corporate target, it must initial be comprehended.

What Is a Learning Organization? Amazingly, a clear meaning of learning has been proven as elusive over time. Organizational advocates have researched learning for some time; the accompanying quotations claim that there is even now considerable disagreement (see “Definitions of Company Learning” on page 77). Many scholars perspective organizational learning as a method that originates over time and link this with expertise acquisition and improved functionality.

But they differ on various other important issues. Some, for instance , believe that behavioral change is required. for learning; others insist that new ways of pondering are enough. Some refer to information processing as the mechanism by which learning occurs; others propose-shared insights, company routines, actually memo. And some think that organizational learning frequently occurs, while others believe that flawed, self-serving interpretations would be the norm.

How could we discern among this kind of cacophony of voices however build on before insights? Being a first step, consider the following definition: A learning organization is usually an organization skilled at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its tendencies to echo new know-how and observations. This definition begins with a simple truth: new way of doing something is essential in the event that learning is always to take place. At times they are developed de novo, through sensations of information or creative imagination; at other times they will arrive via outside the corporation or are disseminated by experienced insiders. No matter what their supply, these way of doing something is the result in for company improvement.

But they cannot by themselves create a learning organization. Devoid of accompanying changes in the way that work gets completed, only the likelihood of improvement is present. This is a surprisingly rigid test for it rules out a number of evident candidates intended for learning agencies. Many schools fail to be eligible, as do various consulting businesses. Even Basic Motors, in spite of its latest efforts to further improve performance, is found wanting.

Many of these organizations have been effective at creating or obtaining new knowledge but particularly less powerful in making use of that knowledge to their very own activities. Total quality supervision, for example , has become taught for many organization schools, yet the number utilizing it to guide their own decision making is very small. Organizational consultants advise clients in social characteristics and small-group behavior tend to be notorious for own infighting and factionalism. And GENERAL MOTORS, with a few exceptions (like Saturn and NUMMI), has had small success in revamping it is manufacturing procedures, even though the managers will be experts upon lean production, JIT creation, and the requirements for increased quality of work life.

Companies that do pass the definitional test – Honda, Corning, and Standard Electric come quickly into your head – possess, by contrast, become adept at translation new know-how into innovative ways of behaving. These companies definitely manage the training process to ensure that it takes place by design rather than by simply chance. Unique policies and practices are in charge of for their achievement; they form the building blocks of learning organizations.

Building Blocks Learning organizations happen to be skilled at five main activities: organized problem solving, testing with new approaches, listening to advice from their own encounter and previous history, listening to advice from the experiences and best practices of others, and transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the corporation. Each is along with a distinctive mind-set, tool package, and routine of behavior. Many companies practice these activities to some degree. But few are constantly successful since they count largely on happenstance and isolated cases. By creating systems and processes that support these types of activities and integrate all of them into the textile of daily operations, businesses can manage their learning more effectively.

1 ) Systematic problem solving. This initially activity sets heavily within the philosophy and methods of the product quality movement. Their underlying tips, now widely accepted, consist of: • Counting on the scientific method, instead of guesswork, for diagnosing problems (what Deming calls the “Plan, Carry out, Check, Act” cycle, yet others refer to while “hypothesis-generating, hypothesistesting” techniques). • Insisting about data, instead of assumptions, because background intended for decision making (what quality practitioners call “fact-based management”). • Using basic statistical equipment (histograms, Pareto charts, correlations, cause-and-effect diagrams) to organize data and draw inferences.

The majority of training applications focus mostly on problem solver techniques, applying exercises and practical good examples. These tools will be relatively uncomplicated and easily disseminated; the necessary mind-set, however , is somewhat more difficult to build. Accuracy and precision are crucial for learning.

Employees need to therefore become more disciplined in their thinking and more attentive to specifics. They must continually ask, “How do we know that’s the case? “, realizing that close enough can be not good enough in the event real learning is to happen. They must push beyond obvious symptoms to evaluate underlying causes, often collecting evidence when conventional wisdom says it can be unnecessary. In any other case, the organization will remain a captive of “gut facts” and sloppy reasoning, and learning will be stifled. Xerox provides mastered this method on a companywide scale.

In 1983, older managers introduced the company’s Leadership Through Quality motivation; since then, most employees have been completely trained in small-group activities and problem-solving methods. Today a six-step process is used to get virtually all decisions (see “Xerox’s Problem-Solving Process”). Employees are supplied with tools in 4 areas: creating ideas and collecting information (brainstorming, meeting with, surveying); achieving consensus (list reduction, rating forms, weighted voting); examining and displaying data (cause-andeffect diagrams, force-field analysis); and planning activities (flow graphs, Gantt charts).

They then practice these-tools during training sessions that last several days. Schooling is presented in “family groups, ” members of the same department or business-unit team, and the tools are used on real challenges facing the group. The result of this process has become a common terminology and a consistent, companywide method of problem solving. Once employees have already been trained, they are expected to utilize techniques at all meetings, without topic is crooked limits.

If a high-level group was formed to examine Xerox’s company structure and suggest alternatives, it applied the very same procedure and tools. 2 . Testing. This activity involves the systematic searching for and tests of new understanding. Using the technological method is essential, and there are evident parallels to systematic problem solving.

But contrary to problem solving, experimentation is usually determined by opportunity and growing horizons, not really by current difficulties. It will require two primary forms: constant programs and one-ofa-kind exhibition projects. Constant programs normally involve a relentless series of tiny experiments, made to produce pregressive gains in knowledge. These are the mainstay on most continuous improvement programs and they are especially common on the store floor.

Corning, for example , tests continually with diverse raw materials and new formulations to increase yields and offer better grades of glass. Allegheny Ludlum, a specialty steelmaker, regularly examines new going methods and improved systems to raise productivity and reduce costs. Successful recurring programs reveal several features. First, they will work hard to make certain a steady movement of new concepts, even if they have to be imported from away from organization.

Chaparral Steel transmits its first-line supervisors on sabbaticals around the world, where that they visit educational and industry leaders, develop an understanding of new Xerox’s Problem-Solving Process Stage Questions to end up being Answered What do we want to transform? Expansion/ Curve Lots of concerns for concern Contraction/ Convergence One issue statement, one particular “desired state” agreed upon What’s Next to Go to the Next Step Id of the difference “Desired state” described in observable terms Key causes documented and ranked 1 . Identify and select problem 2 . Analyse Difficulty What’s preventing us by reaching the “desired state”? How do we associated with change?

What’s the best way to do it? Lots of potential causes recognized. Key causes identified and verified several. Generate potential solutions four.

Select and plan the perfect solution is Lots of concepts on how to fix the problem Plenty of criteria for evaluating potential solutions. A lot of ideas means implement and evaluate the chosen solution Potential solutions clarified Criteria to use for analyzing solution decided Implementation and evaluation ideas agreed upon Execution of agreed-on contingency strategies (if necessary) Effectiveness of solution agreed upon Continuing problems (if any) identified Solution List. Plan for making and monitoring the change Way of measuring criteria to gauge solution effectiveness 5. Implement the solution Are we following a plan? Answer in place six. Evaluate the option How well did it operate?

Verification the fact that problem is fixed, or Agreement to address ongoing problems operate practices and technologies, then simply bring what they’ve learned back to the business and put it to daily operations. Inlarge part due to these projects, Chaparral is among the five lowest cost steel vegetation in the world. GE’s Impact Plan originally dispatched manufacturing managers to Japan to study manufacturing plant innovations, such as quality sectors and kanban cards, and after that apply these people in their own organizations; today Europe is definitely the destination, and productivity improvement practices the target.

The program is usually one purpose GE features recorded efficiency gains hitting nearly 5% over the last four years. Good ongoing applications also need an incentive program that favors risk currently taking. Employees must feel that the key benefits of experimentation go beyond the costs; normally, they will not participate. This makes a difficult problem for managers, who are trapped between two risky extremes.

They have to maintain responsibility and control of experiments with no stifling imagination by unduly penalizing workers for failures. Allegheny Ludlum has mastered this juggling act: that keeps expensive, high-impact experiments off the scorecard used to assess managers but requires previous approvals by four senior vice presidents. The result features been=a history of productivity advancements annually avenging 7% to 8%. Finally, ongoing programs need managers and workers who are trained in the relevant skills required to carry out and evaluate experiments. Learning these skills are rarely intuitive and must generally be learned.

They cover a broad spread around: statistical strategies, like style of experiments, that efficiently compare a large number of alternatives; graphical approaches, like method analysis, which might be essential for upgrading work flows; and creative imagination techniques, just like storyboarding and role playing, that continue to keep novel suggestions flowing. The most efficient training courses are securely focused and have a small pair of techniques tailored to employees’ requirements. Training in type of experiments, for instance , is useful pertaining to manufacturing technical engineers, while creative imagination techniques are very well suited to creation groups.

Exhibition projects are usually larger and even more complex than ongoing trials. They entail holistic, system wide changes, introduced by a single site, and are typically undertaken with all the goal of developing fresh organizational features. Because these types of projects stand for a sharp break from the previous, they are usually designed from scratch, utilizing a “clean slate” approach.

General Foods’s Topeka plant, major high dedication work systems in this country, was a pioneering demonstration project initiated to introduce the concept of self-managing teams and high levels of member of staff autonomy; a far more recent case in point, designed to re-think small-car expansion, manufacturing, and sales, can be GM’s Saturn Division. Demo projects discuss a number of special characteristics: • They are usually the first tasks to convey principles and approaches the fact that organization wants to15325 adopt later on a larger scale.

For this reason, they are more transitional efforts than endpoints and involve significant “learning getting into. ” Mid-course corrections are normal. • They implicitly establish policy recommendations and decision rules for later projects. Managers must as a result be very sensitive to the precedents they are placing and need to send strong signals if they expect to establish new norms. • They often come across severe tests of dedication from personnel who wish to find whether the guidelines have, in fact , changed. • They are normally developed by strong multifunctional groups reporting directly to senior managing. (For assignments targeting worker involvement or perhaps quality of work life, groups should be multi level as well. ) • They have a tendency to have just limited influence on the rest of the firm if they are certainly not accompanied by explicit strategies for copying learning.

All of these characteristics made an appearance in a exhibition project released by Copeland Corporation, a highly successful compressor manufacturer, inside the mid-1970s. Matt Diggs, then the new CEO, wanted to enhance the company’s approach to making. Previously, Copeland had machined and constructed all goods in a single facility: Costs were high, and quality was marginal. The condition, Diggs experienced, was a lot of complexity.

At’ the beginning, Diggs assigned a small, multipurpose team the task of building a “focused factory” focused on a slim, newly developed product line. The team reported directly to Diggs and took three years to complete its job. Initially, the project spending budget was $12 million to $12 , 000, 000; that figure was regularly revised since the team located, through knowledge and with Diggs’s prodding, that it could achieve remarkable improvements. A final investment, a total of $30 million, yielded unanticipated advancements in dependability testing, programmed tool adjusting, and programmable control. Almost all were attained through learning by doing.

They set extra precedents throughout the plant’s start-up and early operations. To dramatize the importance of quality, for example , the quality manager was appointed second-in-command, a significant move upward. The same reporting romance was used at all subsequent vegetation. In addition , Diggs urged the plant manager to ramp up slowly to complete production and resist all efforts to proliferate goods. These instructions were uncommon at Copeland, where the advertising department normally ruled.

The two directives were quickly tested; management placed firm, plus the implications had been felt through the organization. Manufacturing’s stature improved, and the company as a whole recognized its competitive contribution. One observer left a comment, “Marketing had always manage the company, and so they couldn’t believe that. The transform was noticeable at the top levels, and it happened hard. ” Once the 1st focused manufacturing plant was running smoothly -it seized 25% of the industry in two years and kept its edge in reliability for over a decade-Copeland constructed four more factories in quick sequence.

Diggs assigned members from the initial project to each factory’s design team to ensure that early on learnings weren’t lost; these people later rotated and balanced into functioning assignments. Today focused production facilities remain the cornerstone of Copeland’s making strategy and a continuing supply of its cost and quality advantages. Whether they will be demonstration tasks like Copeland’s or regular programs like Allegheny Ludlum’s, all forms of experimentation seek out the same end: moving via superficial knowledge to deep understanding.

At its simplest, the distinction is definitely between finding out how things are carried out and knowing why that they occur. Finding out how is partial knowledge; it is rooted in norms of behavior, standards of practice, and adjustments of equipment. Knowing why is even more fundamental: it captures actual causeand-effect human relationships and benefits exceptions, different types, and unexpected events. The ability to control temperature ranges and pressures to align cause of silicon and form silicon stainlesss steel is a good example of knowing how; comprehending the chemical and physical procedure that produces the conjunction is being aware of why. Additional distinctions happen to be possible, as the insert “Stages of Knowledge” advises.

Operating expertise can be arrayed in a pecking order, moving by limited understanding and the capability to make couple of distinctions to more full understanding by which all contingencies are anticipated and managed. In this circumstance, experimentation and problem solving promote learning simply by pushing agencies up the structure, from lower to higher stages of knowledge. a few. Learning from earlier experience. Corporations must assessment their successes and failures, assess them systematically, and record the lessons in a form that business employers find available and available.

One professional has named t9is procedure the “Santayana Review, ” citing the popular philosopher George Santayana, who also coined the phrase “Those who cannot remember yesteryear are condemned to do it again. ” Sadly, too many managers today are indifferent, actually hostile, towards the past, through failing to reflect on it, they allow valuable know-how escape. Research of more than a hundred and fifty new products concluded that “the know-how gained by failures [is] often instrumental in reaching subsequent successes…. In the most basic terms, inability is the ultimate teacher. “‘ IBM’s 360 computer series, for example , probably the most popular and profitable ever built, was based on the technology with the failed Stretch out computer that preceded that.

In this case, just as many others, learning occurred by chance instead of by cautious planning. A few companies, yet , have established processes that require their particular managers to periodically think about the past and learn from their errors. Boeing did so immediately after it is difficulties with the 737 and 747 aircraft programs.

Both equally planes had been introduced with much parade and also with serious complications. To ensure that the issues were not repeated, senior managers commissioned a high-level employee group, known as Project Groundwork, to assess the development processes of the 737 and 747 with the ones from the 707 and 727, two of the company’s most profitable airplanes. The group was asked to develop some “lessons learned” that could be utilized on future jobs.

After earning a living for three years, they will produced numerous recommendations and an inch-thick booklet. Many members from the team had been then transferred to the 757 and 767 start-ups, and guided simply by experience, they will produced one of the most successful, error-free launches in Boeing’s history. Other companies include used the same retrospective strategy. Like Boeing, Xerox analyzed its product development process, analyzing three troubled products in an effort to understand why the company’s start up business initiatives failed so often.

Arthur D. Tiny, the talking to company, centered on its earlier successes. Older management asked ADL consultants from around the globe to a two-day “jamboree, ” featuring booths and delivering presentations documenting a variety of the company’s most good practices, journals, and tactics. British Petroleum went even further and founded the post-project appraisal product to review major investment tasks, write up circumstance studies, and derive lessons for organizers that were after that incorporated in to revisions in the company’s preparing guidelines.

A five-person device reported towards the board of directors and reviewed half a dozen projects every year. The bulk of enough time was put in in the field meeting with managers. ‘ This type of review is now conducted regularly with the project level. At the heart on this approach, one expert has observed, “is a mind-set that … enables firms to recognize the significance of productive failure as contrasted with unproductive success. A productive failing is one which leads to understanding, understanding, and thus an addition to the frequently held knowledge of the organization.

An useless success occurs when anything goes well, but no person knows just how or why. “‘ IBM’s legendary owner, Thomas Watson, Sr., evidently understood the distinction very well. Company lore has it that the young manager; after dropping $10 mil in a risky venture was called into Watson’s business office. The young man, thoroughly intimidated, began by saying, “I guess you want my personal resignation. ” Watson responded, “You can’t be severe.

We only spent $12 million training you. ” Fortunately, the training process need not be thus expensive. Case studies and post-project opinions like those of Xerox and British Petroleum can be performed with little price other than managers’ time. Corporations can also recruit the help of teachers and learners at community colleges or perhaps universities; they will bring refreshing perspectives and view to truly and case research as for you to gain knowledge and enhance their own learning.

A few businesses have established electronic data banks to improve the learning method. At Paul Revere Life insurance coverage, management requires all problem-solving teams to complete brief registration forms describing their very own proposed projects if that they hope to be eligible for the company’s award plan. The company in that case enters the forms into their computer system and can immediately access a listing of different groups of those who have worked and/or working on the topic, along with a contact person. Relevant experience can now be just a call away. some. Learning from others.

Of course , not every learning originates from reflection and self-analysis. Occasionally the most highly effective insights originate from looking outside one’s instant environment to achieve a new perspective. Enlightened managers know that also companies in completely different businesses can be suitable for farming sources of suggestions and catalysts for creative thinking. At these organizations, fervent borrowing is definitely replacing the “not invented here” syndrome. Milliken phone calls the process SIS, for “Steal Ideas Shamelessly”; the broader term for doing it is benchmarking.

According to 1 expert, “benchmarking is an ongoing investigation and learning encounter that makes certain that best industry practices are uncovered, analyzed, adopted, and implemented. ” The greatest rewards come from studying practices, the way in which that work gets done, rather than results, and from including line managers in the process. Just about anything can be benchmarked. Xerox, the concept’s originator, has used it to billing, storage, and automatic manufacturing. Milliken has been a lot more creative: in an inspired minute, it benchmarked Xerox’s approach to benchmarking. Sadly, there is even now considerable confusion about the needs for good benchmarking.

Benchmarking is not “industrial travel, ” a number of ad hoc sessions to companies that have received favorable advertising or earned quality prizes. Rather, it is just a disciplined process that commences with a detailed search to spot best-practice companies, continues with careful study of one’s individual practices and satisfaction, progresses through systematic web page visits and interview and concludes with an examination of outcomes, development of advice, and rendering. While timeconsuming, the process need not be terribly expensive AT&T’s Benchmarking Group estimates which a moderate-sized task takes 4 to 6 months and incurs out-of-pocket costs of $20, 000 (when workers costs ax included, the figure can be three to four occasions higher).

Bench marking is a sure way of increasing an outside point of view; another, evenly fertile supply of ideas is customers. Interactions with customers invariably induce learning; they can be, after all, specialists in what they certainly. Customers can offer up-to-date merchandise information, competitive comparisons, observations into changing preferences, and immediate feedback about services and patt ern of use. And companies need these insights at all amounts, from the professional suite for the shop ground.

At Motorola, members of the Operating and Policy Committee, including the CEO, meet in person and on an everyday basis with customers. In Worthington Metal, all equipment operators generate periodic, unescorted trips to customers’ factories to discuss their needs. Sometimes customers can’t state their needs or perhaps remember even the most recent problems they have experienced with a products or services.

If that’s the case, managers must watch them in action. Xerox utilizes a number of scientists at its Pena Alto Analysis Center to see users of new document products in their office buildings. Digital Gear has developed a great interactive procedure called “contextual inquiry” that is used by application engineers to observe users of recent technologies because they go about their work.

Milliken has created “first-delivery teams” that accompany the initial shipment of all products; associates follow the merchandise through the customer’s production process to see how it is applied and then develop ideas for even more improvement. Whatever the source of exterior ideas, learning will only take place in a open environment. Managers can’t end up being defensive and must be available to criticism or perhaps bad news. This is a difficult concern, but it is vital for success. Firms that way customers assuming that “we should be right, they must be wrong” or visit other agencies certain that “they can’t teach us anything” seldom learn greatly.

Learning companies, by contrast, enhance the art of available, attentive tuning in. 5. Shifting knowledge. Intended for learning to be a little more than a community affair, knowledge must pass on quickly and efficiently through the organization. Suggestions carry optimum impact if they are shared broadly rather than in a few hands.

A variety of components spur this technique, including crafted, oral, and visual reports, site visits and excursions, personnel rotation programs, education and teaching programs, and standardization applications. Each has distinctive strengths and weaknesses. Reports and tours will be by far the most well-known mediums. Reports serve various purposes: that they summarize conclusions, provide checklists of 2 and don’ts, and explain important techniques and situations. They cover a multitude of matters, from benchmarking studies to accounting exhibitions to recently discovered promoting techniques.

Today written reviews are often supplemented by videotapes, which offer increased immediacy and fidelity. Trips are an equally popular ways of transferring understanding, especially for significant, multidivisional companies with multiple sites.

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