The Next Five Years Business Strategy Essay

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Intro The success of a business strategy relies on a vision and a mission to offer the goals with principles of objectives. The prime most importance of a business technique is to collect ‘raw data’ from the consumer through various methods of query, question, inquiry, interrogation system such as questionnaire, view poll, survey, group discussion and knowledge opinion which is the bottomline for any business.

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Data verification, deleting and omitting undesired data, is definitely further analysed, verified� being called as ‘information’. Variety of accurate information� has attained highest concern in this era of information technology. Incomparably, the opinion or an authentification of a organization strategy deciphered by a professional or a futurist always bring significance and cannot be overlooked.  � However , a strategy should be cost-effective, in the purview of limitations with the company and will be offering definite practical approach, solutions and benefits.

Before it really is introduced to the marketing, it ought to be tested under one building, forecast the expansion and foresee the benefits. � For the start-up or perhaps an established organization, customer and quality item create� one of the most satisfaction paving the way for business rapid expansion. The perfect attributes of a great business can achieve the professional requirements and brand as a multinational.

E. g. Nike multinational, IBM Foreign, Hewlett and Packard, Ms, Dell, will be thoroughly professional companies running a business strategies. � A routine SWOT analysis also helps developing small business and entrepreneurs to manufacture good thinking ideas in order to develop business strategies and processes for marketing. � A constant application and assessment methods of Administration of Information Systems, and an expert Management of� events, would bring the predicted results in the focused area of business. Process 1 – Modes of Enquiry Inductive-Consensual This form of enquiry can be under the class of simple interrogation system. � This is preferably suitable at school level as wondering, logic, reasoning is simple, systematic, providing understanding, motivating and implementing for the principles of enquiry.

A dialogue between a tutor and students evolves good performance appraisal and particular development of frame of mind among learners. This form of enquiry method would � recognize negative facets of students, which will enable� and assist the students to make required corrections inside the areas of demonstration, reading� and activity abilities. Consumer info desk in corporate sector is another best example for this method.

As the questions and enquiries are routine for customers for different purposes, this technique provides rational, proper organizing and some way of seeking the area of option. However , there is certainly huge range for misrepresentations, misinterpretation of facts. This process practices extreme conditions of common sense and thinking with numerical concepts to realize conclusions.

The basis and accuracy of input is tested and utilized with certainity. The success of the guarantor is precise, important and foreseeable. However the application of logic can be described as complex issue depending on the self-control of subject matter. � Common sense is based on the accurate input. Input is usually checked with intelligence division and reasonable reasoning to apply this method. � A poor insight or poor application of logical reasoning brings about failure of enquiry program and defeats the very purpose of enquiry program. This is considered being an appropriate technique as the main ingredient through this method is COMMON SENSE which can be applied in solving the problems of global issues. i. e. joblessness, economy of the country or population growth.

Conflicts and contradictions is surely an uncomfortable area in any situation. � Good decisions will be arrived at only after a long-hour, heated-debates and discussions. A conflict must carry very clear, neat inspiration, healthy, logical grounds of � argument and must seem prospective whilst endeavoring to provide a complete strategy to a problem. Many organisations include heated up arguments throughout table in Board gatherings, Committee group meetings before any� resolutions are produced.

Conflicts pave the way to get solutions. In Governments, competitors parties, likewise adopt this approach of enquiry to verify the intentions and plans of the running government. Nevertheless this enquiry system would not maximize the results to a much better working and works out to a proportionate share and safer means is reached in findings as the interests from the issue confirm highly lesiva to users and managing wherever relevant. Multiple Facts [Multiple view of problems] In a super-mar, if an EPOS has halted functioning it results in gradual movement of billing, clients get impatient and by the final of hour, it leaves an impact within the efficiency of super-mar, which often may impact sales and profits.

The fact is realities cannot� be avoided or avoided, instead they may be confronted with sound judgment and been able with understanding.  � An everyday and regular service might maintain EPOS for frequent working businesses rather than losing customers in the week days of business. A number of social and humanitarian concerns result in undernourishment of adults and kids in various countries. � The fundamental cause, number of data, examination of positives and negatives, would work to be able to a better alternatives for complications. United Nations provides appointed celebs peace ambassadors, to campaign against problems of epidemics and bio-hazards threatening� the world.

Necessitates required follow up with recommendations and is generally applicable and extremely useful in an entire range of professional sectors, landmines, mountaineering and areas that are prone to all-natural catastrophies. This is certainly hugely dangerous to cultural and economic means and an ever alert approach to working. � A professional way, implementation of efficient process of thinking and pre-monitoring of messy situations are the pre-requisites. A simple saying� “a toad stool and a mushroom appear similar”. “One is usually venomous and the other is definitely edible”. � Identifying the problematic areas and working severely in such will certainly further assist in prevention of any problems from occurring.

Factories of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, demand very efficient and untiring efforts by security division till the department of dispatch inspite of level of function and quality of knowledge when involving experts and experts. Strengths and limitations Differences Consensual The success of enquiry method is dependent on several factors. Namely, data gathering, questioning, thinking the answers and texte of information, analyzing the problem, hindrances and additional identifying areas that support, assist in finish eradication from the problem and bring results to centered area of functioning. Intelligence system of enquiry is� appropriate and considered best for better working results in doing work atmosphere.

Although each method has strengths and constraints, weaknesses, goal is set on issue, subject and endeavoring to solving the situation according to the extensive of problem. E-business support is� a simple solution based application to enhance organization with the use of internet technology. � It is also regarded as another easy and effective method of expanding organization market intended for identifying customers which results in the growth of business.  � This kind of necessarily needs a thorough study of the industry that was relevant to days gone by, present� and projections to get future. � On line business selling requires an advanced study of marketing and advertising strategies aside from an efficient elektronische geschaftsabwicklung software as it includes the complete process of TPS on a single program i. at the. marketing, transactions, buying, offering and on line invoice repayment through creditcards.

E-business is leading one other era of business that has never occurred in the past in the history of organization, which is incredibly successful and profitable to both the existing business and for venturing of new businesses with a great application of technology. As a promoting evidence towards the above declaration, a study was conducted by Bolston� Consulting Group which concluded that earnings from E-business Solutions elevated by 13 per cent with the constant regarding consumer targeted traffic on web site. � Online success of business is in finding a best customer and retaining the client for standing; permanence stability of business. Name of Organisation: Canadian Airlines, Interrogation method: Dialectic/Unbounded Systems of thinking.

Compa?ero political Canadian Airlines Intercontinental Ltd., is definitely presently Surroundings Canada is the second prominent airline in industry. That contributes to the working operations geographically� in 17 countries and a wide spots of 160 apart from home-based operations. It has gained reputation as a global industry adding new space routes in passenger flight companies. � Aircarrier industry, is� effected about the new design of procedures made by federal government, which will impact tourism, organization of both� domestic as well as international. The traffic of commercial flights is dependent on progress tourism, holiday packages, business excursions and prices of flights, � passengers� are being offered.

Periodic holiday delivers heavy business for aircarrier industry. Canadian air sector has exceptional business contact with U. S flight companies and Asian Airlines and maintenance of exceptional business regards with other airlines of various countries. � Very low unique style of operations and delivery of services to passengers. Canadian airline is usually sophisticated with technology-advanced flights in freight and traveler business. These flights happen to be heavily successful with progression of functions in functions.

Airline sites are linked to a link which is the heart of air series company, where all the information about schedule landings and departures are placed and this details is gathered and provided for various places as data packages which is extremely fast in delivering communications. Also Canadian airline with the heart-mapping path being close in range to U. S and Europe which can be advantageous to the growth of the business.

Stiffening intellect and high alert burglar alarms in traveling traffic, insurance policy, pre-monitoring in the scheduled appearance and reduction operations of flights will certainly further stop the catastrophic and barbaric works causing loosing innocent lives. � App and rendering of efficient enquiry system is the ideal reason for business approach and designing. U. S i9000 is the biggest client for Canadian air flow industry in both doing scheduled and charter providers. � Different clients incorporate Pacific Edge, Caribbean and Europe. Worldwide Canadian airlines acknowledges 2% of marketplace in aircarrier industry. � In the year 1996, the company features restructured financial strategy to boost its income and volume of business.

It includes adopted a distinctive business approach of maintaining� prices, costs and customer traffic needs according to the time of year which are dedicated to sales and profits for the company. � A discount service for frequently flying clients further will help the company to forecast the sales in a variety of geographical locations. It has a significant portion of revenues from home-based and intercontinental market of air visitors. � Nevertheless , government guidelines of constraints on overseas ownership of air companies is in the only interest from the Canadian Government for safe guarding the security measures and efficient procedure of the organization.

Company provides a steady monetary performance, preparing of an included market and air space sites has increased the importance in the global marketplace. Several Cookware airlines viz., Air India and Singapore and many well-known international flight companies have established complicite with the firm. Cost slicing on gasoline, maintenance of assets, labor and staff managing, have worked to help strengthening from the organization. An expert organization developing steadily in spite of decline for� a period, provides regained the leadership.

Appartenente political upheavals stand like a threat for the growth of business strategy. Firm periodically focuses on, forecasts their financial performance of the organization basing in different marketing plans and product sales plans. Unexpected and unanticipated changes in social atmosphere whilst in the political situation halt the business operations of the company, which can be as a whole is definitely not with the intention to a company. Business develops a small business strategy to deliver better customer service, maintain specialist standards and gain market recognition to record a� stable organization. These has to be set aside to stabilize the industry and company’s efficiency.

However , there is also a also a viewpoint that any kind of monopolistic methods will refuse an individual perception in the industry, and any altered policy or scenario is made for the development of general public interest. � Considering the specifics and circumstances, periodically appropriate methods and techniques and plans should be designed to improve the company and boost revenue and growth. Technological implementations of advanced methods of on the web services, networks, MIS, DSS, ERP, CRM will velocity the revenue and� offer excellent standards of stretching business leading to the revenue growth of the organization.

Partnering, forces, e-business providers with customized and supportive clients will certainly further boost to the occurrence of the firm in the market producing the business easy. Online companies in TPS, partnering with banks to get payment system, insurance agents, providing 24 hour on the web booking system, one-stop-shop pertaining to hotel room reservations, booking a vehicle, arrangement of currency conversion enables a buyer satisfaction which is top priority in airline sector. Economic-geographical: Air travel industry works irrespective of physical locations and linguistic limitations. � It works on destinations and consumer traffic.

As a result strategies that help and reach out these geographical spots i. elizabeth. air tracks where the criteria of atmosphere line service is required, fetches business towards the company and a new market is identified pertaining to the market. Open sky policy, low-cost flights pay attention to customer traffic and efficiency of routes. � Because the competition in the market is increasing, innovative management in innovating new business approaches and promoting plans must be evolved to draw customers and sustain the stiff competition in the market. Partnering in different demographies, would put the client foundation and opportunity for advancement business and growth in profits.

Globalisation has a exceptional place to get the companies who may have attained a branded image� for quality services made to clients. � A Periodical review of sales program, would develop successful approaches. The above details provide an understanding, that air flow line market is� an exorbitant global business which usually require a regular pursuasion of systems of thinking to head towards a home based business00 and to restrict competition which in turn requires, recognition of requirements, interests of any customer and give access to the facilities to be able to increase the targeted traffic of customers. � Within the business, both in management and at administrative level, � dialectic system of pondering would further more develop efficient team job, development of fresh concepts of marketing, business approaches and strategies while the firm staff stay motivated on training to offer the objective and goals from the company in order to grow the business. � On the other hand, unbounded devices of pondering would further more lead the business for more research and development, evolve and establish new methods of devices in atmosphere line sector.

Risk has to be prevented, evaluated and been able as air travel industry can be heavy in capital Expense. An efficient progress information system must be produced to manage dangers and to discover errors. Notifying the individuals for any technical deficiencies, delaying flights for security measures, checking international airports on-time, passenger-check etc ., are a couple of the risk management.

Development of consequence analysis really helps to take pre-meditated and pre-determined steps and action grids with possibilities. � For instance , before virtually any flight takes-off, a thorough means of checking must result in checking out of actions grid, with possible effect analysis as well as the probabilities of action and effects. � It is essential and a necessity� to prevent any kind of potential effect and misappropriation of handling the system of functioning. For instance , if a particular flight is running shortage of fuel and confronted with technical problems, with immediate data system assistance, help could be drawn to terrain at a nearby airport terminal and after necessary checking and refueling, it could fly again.

This is an acceptable implication as a result of consequence examination. Information system must efficiently produce preventing negative effects and result in odds and action grids with solutions in case of. The performance of information strategy is at all times must prove to be operating.

In the creation process of info system, a keen and limited security has to be reserved for preserving confidentiality to safe protect and shield the interests of company. Also in order to avoid any malpractices that may cause heavy loss of information to company. Most of information devices are integrated networks to share the information that may be common in MIS and DSS.

Nevertheless , as per professional standards of business, info that is required should be accessed through a proper route of interaction and virtually any leakage or perhaps lenient take on information program must be deactivated. � As part of every day operations, information has to be restricted for viewing as well as for security functions. Certification of ISO-2000 is definitely awarded simply to those companies who keep professional specifications in providing goods and services. A thorough information program will have CIA, privacy, integrity and availability rendering security and allowing access to the system while keeping confidentiality in airline sector.

Network and distributive program connecting supply chains with efficient operating of software, � would make the data available to a large number of areas as some of the on-line working devices do not provide security of information. � This info can be retrieved by bad forces to cause peril leaving a deep effect on the working and scheduled starting of plane tickets. � Air travel organization contains a diversified adverse consequences� in the case of systems failing as it is service-oriented involving numerous people, services and goods. Any seapage of system security, not working or chaos would deliver loss of earnings for business week days. � Early detection of mistakes and comprehensive scrutiny of systems is necessary on per hour basis in the organization.

The organization has the majority of experienced staff and has got the credibility of shareholders expenditure. Union Users and shareholders are strenuous change of management, since the inventory price of the company is usually sliding via $8 – $5. � The company in fails to achieve its objectives, by establishing of new standards in business strategies information devices, and economic restructuring could very well witness a big loss of experience manpower and union affiliate strikes. The company is also vested with changing the circumstance of organization providing business reforms in working procedures and administration. The Supervision of the organization is very well experienced and is also quite hostile to share new market over a slow means of system.

 Code of perform [BCS]#@@#@!: The corporation has a workforce of 16000 which highlights the fact the fact that human means of working activity, has been taken care of by the business on professional grounds improving labor laws and tolerance on moralistic and moral grounds. Extreme access to data and details, necessitates the company to change the info system to stop any damage or damage of information. � Proper and efficient determination and activity training provided to employees, has stabilized the organization even in times of recession. Code of ethics [HKCS] The efficiency and strength of Trade Union of the company is at par in know-how management above sales and financial functionality.

Trade Union and work force experience almost every situation that passes through the company plus they are considered as much part of the organization working whom circumspect modify of command in the business. � Moral issues from the company are the height of efficient supervision in controlling several problems on personal, emotional and job level. Grievances are to be resolved on the top priority in individual basis by HRD department of the company because the strength of the airline company exists with 100% time. E60 problems are existent in BMW vehicles, mobiles, DISC players with bluetooth technology.

Consumers need to be in contact with the corporation for looking for assistance in rectification of non-functioning or dissatisfied businesses of electronic digital goods. � This has lead to the buyer forums in discussion of E60 problems. Danger is being encountered mostly recover are produced by cars while in running state and mobile phones which need analytical doing work and re-designing of electronic circuits and chips which have been embedded in electronic merchandise. � Some of the solutions which can be implemented simply by companies are to extend warranty providers and� consider the responses of buyer and accordingly work on alternatives.

However , through this particular technological problems, a great expertise degree of knowledge at research as well in service is necessary to considered by company to be able to maintain the top quality of goods staying marketed since it certainly impacts the reputation of the brand. Data system can further develop extensively in every sphere of business and industrial sector with the modern technology of internet and access to industry of global requirements, which results in intense implementations of IS and be a part of everyday life for common man, businesses and the positive effect. Development of more effective information systems certainly present accurate and faster solutions to meet the criteria of an successful business of B2B and B2C.

Web commerce, e-business, e-alliances will improve globalised items. Cargo and passenger surroundings industry anticipate an unstable and a huge expansion running a business growth, in the event the present tendency and percentage of development is consistent in the arriving next five years. � Information devices would still enhance the development and productivity working of system of a company guaranteeing the results� result and earnings. There is a great emerge of business companies in various designs, plans and applying methods leading to the achievements of global organization.

Some of the effective systems are: Every little or an entrance business which styles a business technique, planning and proper setup would derive the targeted results to get successful achievement of it is goals and objectives. Consumers are in need of budget-friendly, qualitative and comfortable services while the needs and living standards of a global buyer have observed a drastic difference in mindset. � For example , Mobile phone technology is around a decade outdated in Asia. The present portable market in India has exceeded the necessity of mobile phones in Asia market.

The explanation for growing trend in business and opportunities to get more jobs, have got facilitated the rise in the market of mobiles. Therefore , business tactics as a whole, will be the skeleton drawings for getting organization devices into order. However , there is a requirement and need from the hour can be speed, reliability and efficient movement of goods, services and processing systems without that the systems stop and improvement is hampered. � On-line booking and delivery of flowers, greetings, pizzas, cosmetic makeup products, antique projects, books, provides a large portion of choice and variety for any consumer which can be far over and above thinking for a traditional method of searching.

The success of information technology has become fiel and offers attained the spirit penalized part of daily living in global trade, business and gain access to of providers and earnings. There are some of� the areas that post danger to the strategies of business and information devices. A bug or a worm of computer virus would capture the wind fast in dispersing the computer virus across internet and cause millions of damage in revenue which is double as compared to normal catastrophe. Safeguarding information systems from staying posed to threat and sources of nonavailability of private information has to be restored to a large extent among the business.

Globalisation brings together distinct traditions, nationalities, combinations of various regions and customers but meeting certain requirements, needs and necessities of customers� which is considered to be a fantastic standard of worldwide business. Another successful sort of a business strategy is bharatmatrimony. com a portal for fixing matrimony alliances world wide. The company is prosperous and growing by three hundred percent annually adding it is client base through offering affiliate subscriptions, and has a convenience of various� local languages to facilitate the traditions and cultures of customers in repairing of complicite.

Several other good examples of global business happen to be barnes&nobles. com, amazon. com, google. com which have an explosive record of profits as every single second there is also a click producing business turning the volumes of prints of business on these types of web sites. Careful, unexaggerated and vivid organizing in designing efficient organization and info systems and staying motivated until the plan succeeds would work to facilitate a comfortable environment pertaining to an organization. � Conclusively, the external environment of an organization is dependent upon performance growth of a company.

Canadian air series industry is among the oldest air flow lines which will previously operated on classic methods of regular flight arranging service, tele-booking system and so forth, � as well as some other business strategies to grow the market discuss. � In accordance with the statistics of business, in the year 1999, business generated a revenue of $3 billion dollars and holds an investment of $200 mil from shareholders of the organization. Company’s current workforce is approximately 16, 500 and a few, 300 union members. Earlier year the corporation recorded a 4. 6th percent by 3. several percent in the traffic of passenger atmosphere line. The company’s stock price is stable recording everywhere between $8 – 5$ in inventory exchanges.

The business succeeded in establishing distributive network. The recent changing times in technology possess offered the organization with advanced e-business tactics and possibilities for complicite as the customer market world wide is in search of cheap fare. As a result business of tourism has increased the product sales of the business.

In spite of the corporation witnessed a recession in the year 1991, right away within a course of one year, company features regained it share of market and began innovative strategies of business plans. The shareholders with the company happen to be perceptive regarding change of management which includes to be taken into account, � while the major shareholding of the organization is organised by investors. Re-structuring of management and re-designing of system both equally at developing and� at operating amounts in the industry, may be the emergent requirement of the company to regain the last position of leadership in air range industry.

That necessitates a long-term working with adequate, � efficient and experienced staff work to formulate a revised system of functioning in order to content profits by domestic as well as international surroundings operations. � Importantly work force that is aheading for old age, have to replace by young and dynamic qualified workers to develop start up business strategies that are appropriate and produce successful financial effects for the company. Human resource management considers that properly organized, and timely communication within the firm, solves most of the conflicts, differences, differences of opinion by mode of committee group meetings, periodical employee meetings, overview of progress meetings, group conversations, work discussion board, employee forms, employee studies which reveal the work info as well recognize the lacuna areas, that require clear and concise surface work to analyse the hindrances.

Notably information runs from conversation and ascends or descends accordingly towards the hierarchy composition of the firm which instructed to be supervised about it is veracity and falsification. Improved computerization inside the organizations of various sectors make communication quite easier and accurate. Also websites, e-mail, messaging software has enabled quick and velocity communication which result in increased productivity for the company. Nevertheless , appropriate teaching on communication methods� must be extended and practiced simply by employees and management to get maintaining effective organizational behaviour in the conduct of professional and honest standards.

Efficiency appraisal, bonuses, gift techniques, providing educational scholarships, and fringe benefits will also boosts the synergies of employees and a sense of satisfaction of being an element of the company Canadian Air Collection industry was founded in 1987 establishing hubs at Montreal-Pierre, Calgary Intercontinental Air port, Barcelone Pearson and Vancouver. Until 2001, it absolutely was the second major airliner. Air Canada features acquired whole 163 aircraft which were traveling in 160 destinations in 17 countries over five continents. The company official internet site is � www.cdnair.ca.

Four in years past, the company was on the edge of being receiving announced while bankrupt that has been held back by investment of $200 million by the shareholders who were with the opinion the airline company must proceed its procedures until it beyond the debt. This current financial twelve-monthly report likewise forecasts accumulated of $185 million for the $1 billion damage recorded. Together with the volume of businesses and business air range industry provides every year, the loss can easily be recovered by implementing best practices details systems and business strategies. The company must its credit, a divisional network with regional air carriers, Calm Air International Ltd., Inter-Canadian Inc. Air Atlantic, Canadian North and Canadian Plus.

The corporation has most efficient flights viz., A320, Boeing 737-200, Boeing 767-300ER, Boeing 747-400, Douglas DC-10-30 and Fokker F-28. The organization features affiliations with Air Atlantic, Time Atmosphere and Ontario Express. Their network is distributed throughout several countries of Asia and The european countries, apart from affiliations with holiday operators and hotel sector. � Continuous effort in improving operating operations, � qualified personnel to develop extremely successful business strategies of immediate and long lasting, partnerships, alliances would get worse to the volume of company’s organization.

Checking of seasonal requirements, customer supply back and successful handling of traffic since every clear counts towards the sales of airline.    � Offering eye-catching low-cost vacation packages in travel and leisure based places and customer relation supervision by selecting qualified and efficient staff would further more strengthen the organization. Periodical evaluation of LOS and DSS and building in preparing of various tricks of marketing likewise help the organization to boost revenue. Airline industry is built with heavy investment of capital, application of advanced technological methods which is in close interaction with network of information system.

Without the efficiency flow of MIS, DSS and TPS, it is very hard job to process your data particularly in airline market. � Any line of sector is susceptible to the area of risks and difficulties. � Airline industry carries a significant prominence in handling risk management, assessment and control. Pre-monitoring of hazards is an ideal activity that an aircarrier industry undertakes to prevent any unforeseen situations� and they are been able with right and effective eradicating and controlling tools of risks management. “Caveat Emptor” is a term a part of Consumer Safeguard Act, which in turn describes “Let the buyer end up being aware”. Client is offered having a wide variety of options and one of a kind methods of business strategies.

The growth and performance of the organization relies on purchase of the customer bottom on good grounds of quality and service that will strengthen the business. Modern day business technology is facilitated with advanced methods carrying weighty prominence and considered as the best means of success and achievement. Application of technology in the proper and significant areas where the growth is required is a area wherever working on the probabilities and consequence methods is required to apply the standards and ways of all business management systems towards success of goals and objectives of organization. Canada Travel Act Review: Chapter 7: Air range industry viewed 9 Nov, 2006 http://www.reviewcta-examenltc.gc.ca/english/pages/final/ch7e.htm http://www.canadianbusiness.com/managing/strategy/article.jsp?content=20060106_171049_4616 Don’t let airline ground http://www.microsoft.com/smallbusiness/resources/finance/business_travel/dont_let_airline_troubles_ground_your_business_6_tips.mspx E-Business Fundamentals (2003) Gathered 9 The fall of, 2006 http://www.bannerview.com/newsletter/archive/?id=64 http://www.thinkingmanagers.com/business-management/business-strategy.php Odette Madore, Daniel J. Shaw (1993), The Canadian Airline Industry, Its structure efficiency and prospective customers viewed on the lookout for November, 06\ http://dsp-psd.communication.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp329-e.htm Ben Fennell (1996): Canadian Airline struggles, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Maclean’s Articles or blog posts viewed 9 November, 06\ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=M1ARTM0010589

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